Comprehensive understanding of the merits of bottom-up urban development is lacking, thus hampering and complicating associated collaborative processes. Therefore, and given the assumed relevancies, we mapped the social, environmental and economic values generated by bottom-up developments in two Dutch urban areas, using theory-based evaluation principles. These evaluations raised insights into the values, beneficiaries and path dependencies between successive values, confirming the assumed effect of placemaking accelerating further spatial developments. It also revealed broader impacts of bottom-up endeavors, such as influences on local policies and innovations in urban development.
Mens, J., Van Bueren, E., Vrijhoef, R., & Heurkens, E. (2023). Identifying the merits of bottom-up urban development: Theory-based evaluation using a value
map model, Planning Practice & Research, DOI: 10.1080/02697459.2023.2181296